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Good Fat vs Bad Fat: What is the difference?

Greg Connolly

Eating clean may make you afraid of the word "fat"

Naturally, you instantly think of fatty foods such as cookies, pastries, cheeseburgers, etc. 

You are correct... to a certain extent.

The fats in those foods are composed of Saturated fat and/or Trans fat.

Don't be afraid of other types of fat, as they can be very beneficial to a diet and can even aid in weight loss.

 

Paul Salter, MS, RD, LD, CSCS otherwise known as The Nutrition Tactician, also works as a Nutrition Editor for Bodybuilding.com, one of the RD resources for Trifecta, Sports Nutrition Consultant for Renaissance Periodization and Sports Dietitian & Performance Consultant. He shares his professional knowledge regarding the topic of dietary fat, using his extensive experience in the health/fitness industry:

 

"When trying to rid body fat, you shouldn’t rid dietary fat. Fat is essential. It plays a necessary role in hormone production and cognitive function, it serves as the structure of cell walls, plays an integral role in cell signaling and communication, and works to cushion organs and joints. It also helps to absorb the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). And did I mention it tastes phenomenal? But given that it has a grossly high caloric density (9 calories per gram), it’s often cut drastically when one is attempting to lose body fat.

This can prove to be detrimental, especially when following a very-low fat diet, which is defined by eating less than 15 percent of total calories from fat. This equates to eating less than 25 grams of fat per day when following a 1,500 calorie per day diet.

The short-term impact of a very-low fat approach include an increase in blood triglyceride levels, and decrease in HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels [6]. Furthermore, there’s an accompanying decrease in testosterone, and disruption, or even, complete cessation in a woman’s menstrual cycle.

It’s important to note that weight loss is directly influenced by the relationship between the number of calories you eat and the number of calories you burn per day. As long as you’re eating fewer calories than you’re burning, you will lose weight, even if 35 percent of those calories are from fat.

A study published in International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders split over 100 subjects into two groups: one group followed a moderate-fat diet (35 percent of calories from fat) and the other followed a low-fat diet (20 percent of calories from fat) [7]. Although the subject’s diets weren’t tightly controlled each day throughout the 18-month study, those subjected to the moderate-fat group lost significantly more weight as well as inches around their mid-section compared to the low-fat diet group. The notion of a diet higher in fat is further supported by the fact that obesity rates and health complications are significantly lower in those following a Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by frequent inclusion of fatty fish, olive oil, nuts, and seeds [8-10].

Successful weight loss can be achieved with a low- or even a moderate-fat diet, rather than a very-low fat diet. What’s most important is that you’re taking in fewer calories than you’re burning. Yes, fat provides more than twice as many calories per gram as protein and carbohydrates, but if you toggle your nutrients appropriately (not at the expense of too little protein, of course), you can still eat a low- or moderate- amount of fat and lose weight."

Is Saturated Fat Good or Bad?

Saturated Fats

Saturated fat 

This fat can be bad, if consumed in large amounts. The American Heart Association recommends limiting your saturated fat intake [3]. Studies have shown, it raises total blood cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Foods that fall under this category include most things sourced from animals, such as red meat, eggs, butter and cheese.

 

Studies have shown

Trans Fat

Studies have shown, the WORST source of fat is Trans fat. Some Trans fat is naturally sourced in foods and another type is artificially sourced, through a process called partial hydrogenation. Partially hydrogenated fat also increases the risk of high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration made a preliminary determination that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) in human food

 

[4]. Trans fats are inexpensive and make food taste better and last longer—which is why most fast food contains high levels of trans fat. Some other foods that contain high levels of trans fat include doughnuts, biscuits, cookies, crackers, etc.

Knowledge is power

Health Issues Caused by Dietary Fats in Foods

High cholesterol and heart disease are common health issues in America. With 2,200 Americans dying of cardiovascular disease daily [5], it’s definitely something to pay attention to. Luckily, there are ways to avoid these prevalent conditions.

Have no fear… the good fats are here!

Remember these two terms: Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated. Studies have shown, those are the fats you want to be incorporating into your diet.

Have no fear good fats are here

Monounsaturated fat

This type of fat has one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded [1]. You may have heard of these fats, especially with the popular “Mediterranean diet” being studied. This diet incorporates large amounts of Monounsaturated fats, resulting in a high-fat diet. Examples of these fats include: olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts, safflower and sunflower oil. Studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for heart disease [2].

Polyunsaturated fat

Has more than one double bond. This fat is essential for your body to function and you can only get it from the whole foods you consume. Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are classified as Polyunsaturated.

Omega-3 Fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids naturally occurring in fish oils and many plants. The body does not make Omega-3 fatty acids so they must be obtained from foods we eat. There are two major types of omega-3 fatty acids in our diets: ALA is one type, found in some vegetable oils, such as soybean, canola, flaxseed and walnuts, and in some green vegetables, like brussel sprouts, kale, spinach, and salad greens.

Polyunsaturated fat

 

The other type of Omega 3s are EPA and DHA, found in fatty fish. The body partially converts ALA to EPA and DHA but is very inefficient at doing so. Therefore obtaining EPA and DHA directly from food becomes crucial for human beings.

Omega 3s have been shown to have many beneficial roles, such as:

  • Reducing the risk of heart disease, various types of cancer, osteoporosis and bone loss
  • Lessening symptoms of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease, anxiety, depression, etc.
  • Improving cognitive function

It is pretty well established that Omega-3 fats are important for health, but

How much should a person take and what is the best way to obtain these fats?

That actually depends on the amount of Omega-6 fatty acids in your diet.

Our ancestors are estimated to have consumed Omega-6 and Omega-3 fats in a ratio of about 1:1. As vegetable oil consumption and processed grain consumption have risen in modern society, so has that ratio. Commonly used vegetable oils are very high in Omega-6 fats: Safflower oil is 75% Omega-6 and 0% Omega-3 and sunflower, corn, cottonseed and soybean oils are all more than 50% Omega-6 fats with 0% Omega-3s. High quality fish oils are 100% Omega-3 and 0% Omega-6.

How much should a person take and what is the best way to obtain these fats

The average American consumes a diet very high in Omega 6: vegetable oils, soy and processed grains.

 

It is now estimated that we consume a 12:1 ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3.The more omega-3 fat you eat, the less omega-6 is available to the tissues to potentially cause inflammation. Omega-6 is pro-inflammatory, while omega-3 is neutral and does not cause inflammation (in fact it reduces it). A diet with a lot of omega-6 and not much omega-3 has a higher chance of inflammation. A diet of a lot of omega-3 and not much omega-6 may reduce inflammation.I try to eat fatty fish at least once or twice a week and I take supplemental forms of Omega-3 from quality sources.The average person should consume a minimum of 3g (3000mg) of Omega 3 fatty acids (specifically EPA and DHA) per day. An ideal amount for those who are athletic is 5g (5000mg). For those who are obese or have chronic inflammation or pain, 7g (7000mg) is ideal, according to studies.

 

Tips to prevent inflammation

Tips to prevent inflammation:

  • Avoid vegetable oils and products containing them
  • Eat healthy fats (from sources like animal fats, coconut oil, raw organic dairy).
  • Consume fish daily or supplement with pure fish oil

Some good fish oil products include Pure Pharma, Nordic Naturals and Barleans.

Foods high in omega 3s:

  • Flaxseed Oil/Flaxseeds
  • Chia Seeds
  • Edamame
  • Walnuts
  • Grass-Fed Beef
  • Salmon
  • Mackerel
  • Cod
  • Shrimp
  • Cod liver oil
  • Herring
  • Tuna
  • Sardines
  • Anchovies
  • Egg yolks (especially omega 3 enriched eggs)

 

References
[1] Monounsaturated fat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monounsaturated_fat
[2] PLOS ONE: Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0087539
[3] AMA: Saturated Fats
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/HealthyEating/Nutrition/Saturated-Fats_UCM_301110_Article.jsp#.V9cyMlQrJO0
[4] AMA: Trans Fats
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/HealthyEating/Nutrition/Trans-Fats_UCM_301120_Article.jsp#.V9c0lFQrJO1
[5] Cholesterol and Heart Disease
http://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/cholesterol-and-heart-disease
[6] Lichtenstein, A. H., Van Horn, L., & Nutrition Committee. (1998). Very low fat diets. Circulation98(9), 935-939.
[7] McManus, K., Antinoro, L., & Sacks, F. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of a moderate-fat, low-energy diet compared with a low fat, low-energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders25(10).
[8] Panagiotakos, D. B., Chrysohoou, C., Pitsavos, C., & Stefanadis, C. (2006). Association between the prevalence of obesity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the ATTICA study. Nutrition22(5), 449-456.
[9] Crous-Bou, M., Fung, T. T., Prescott, J., Julin, B., Du, M., Sun, Q., ... & De Vivo, I. (2014). Mediterranean diet and telomere length in Nurses' Health Study: population based cohort study. British Medical Journal, 349, g6674.
[10] Nilsson, P. M. (2014). Mediterranean diet and telomere length. British Medical Journal, 349, g6843

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